rfc:preload

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rfc:preload [2018/10/18 10:09]
dmitry created
rfc:preload [2019/01/21 18:20]
cmb Add link to manual
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   * Date: 2018-10-18   * Date: 2018-10-18
   * Author: Dmitry Stogov, dmitry@zend.com   * Author: Dmitry Stogov, dmitry@zend.com
-  * Status: Draft (or Under Discussion or Accepted or Declined)+  * Status: Implemented
   * First Published at: http://wiki.php.net/rfc/preload   * First Published at: http://wiki.php.net/rfc/preload
  
 ===== Introduction ===== ===== Introduction =====
-PHP uses opcode caches for ages (APC, Turck MMCache, Zend Opcahce). They achieve significant performance boost by **ALMOST** complete elimination of PHP script recompilation. Actuallyscripts are compiled once (on first HTTP requestthat use them), and are stored in shared memory. All the following HTTP requests use cached in shared memory representation.+PHP has been using opcode caches for ages (APC, Turck MMCache, Zend OpCache). They achieve significant performance boost by **ALMOST** completely eliminating the overhead of PHP code recompilation. With an opcode cachefiles are compiled once (on the first request that uses them), and are then stored in shared memory. All the following HTTP requests use the representation cached in shared memory.
  
-This proposal is about the "**ALMOST**", mentioned above. Despite, caching significantly reduces PHP script load time, it doesn't eliminate this phase completely. We still have to check if the script source was modified, copy "variable" parts of classes and functions from shared memory to process memory, re-linking, etc. Also, each script is compiled and cached separately (because each one may be changed)so we can'keep dependencies between classes stored in different files, and have to link them at run-time on each request.+This proposal is about the "**ALMOST**", mentioned above. While storing files in an opcode cache eliminates the compilation overhead -- there is still cost associated with fetching a file from the cache and into a specific request's context We still have to check if the source file was modified, copy certain parts of classes and functions from the shared memory cache to the process memory, etc.  Notablysince each PHP file is compiled and cached completely independently from any other file, we can'resolve dependencies between classes stored in different files when we store the files in the opcode cache, and have to re-link the class dependencies at run-time on each request.
  
-The idea of proposal inspired by "Class Data Sharing" technology designed for Java HotSpot VM. On server startupwe may load a bunch of PHP scripts and make all the functions and classes defined there as "permanent". They will be available to all HTTP requests out of the box, like internal entities (e.g. strlen() or Exception). In this way, we may **preload** whole frameworks (or their parts) or even most application classes or just introduce "standard" functions written in PHP (similar to HHVM's sytemlib).+This proposal is inspired by the "Class Data Sharing" technology designed for Java HotSpot VM. It aims to provide users with the ability to trade in some of the flexibility that the conventional PHP model provides them, for increased performance.  On server startup -- before any application code is run -- we may load a certain set of PHP files into memory - and make their contents "permanently available" to all subsequent requests that will be served by that server.  All the functions and classes defined in these files will be available to requests out of the box, exactly like internal entities (e.g. strlen() or Exception). In this way, we may **preload** entire or partial frameworks, and even the entire application class library.  It will also allow for introducing "built-in" functions that will be written in PHP (similar to HHVM's sytemlib).  The traded-in flexibility would include the inability to update these files once the server has been started (updating these files on the filesystem will not do anything;  A server restart will be required to apply the changes);  And also, this approach will not be compatible with servers that host multiple applications, or multiple versions of applications - that would have different implementations for certain classes with the same name - if such classes are preloaded from the codebase of one app, it will conflict with loading the different class implementation from the other app(s).
  
 ===== Proposal =====  ===== Proposal ===== 
-Preloading is going to be controlled by just a single new php.ini directive - **opcache.preload**. Using this directive we will specify just a single PHP script to preload, but this script may be just a "root" of preloading. It's not just loaded but executedand simple may preload other script, including them or using opcache_compile_file() function. Previously, I tried to implement a reach DSL to specifywhich files to load, which ignore, using pattern matching etc, but then realised, that writing the preloading scenarios in PHP itself much simple and much more flexible.+Preloading is going to be controlled by just a single new php.ini directive - **opcache.preload**. Using this directive we will specify a single PHP file - which will perform the preloading task Once loaded, this file is then fully executed and may preload other fileseither by including them or by using the opcache_compile_file() function. Previously, I tried to implement a rich DSL to specify which files to load, which to ignore, using pattern matching etc, but then realized that writing the preloading scenarios in PHP itself was much more simple and much more flexible.
  
 For example the following script introduces a helper function, and uses it to preload the whole Zend Framework. For example the following script introduces a helper function, and uses it to preload the whole Zend Framework.
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 </code> </code>
  
-Preloaded scripts cached in opcache SHM forever. Modification of their sources won'make effect without another server restart. All functions and most classesdefined in these scripts, are permanently loaded into PHP function and class tables and become always available. During preloading, PHP also resolves class dependencies and links with parent, interfaces and traits. It also removes useless includes and performs other optimizations.+As mentioned above, preloaded files remain cached in opcache memory forever. Modification of their corresponding source files won'have any effect without another server restart. All functions and most classes defined in these files will be permanently loaded into PHP'function and class tables and become permanently available in the context of any future request. During preloading, PHP also resolves class dependencies and links with parent, interfaces and traits. It also removes unnecessary includes and performs some other optimizations
 + 
 +''opcache_reset()'' is not going to reload preloaded files. It's just not possible using current opcache design, because during restart, they may be used by some process, and any modifications may lead to crash. 
 + 
 +''opcache_get_status'' is extended to provide information about preloaded functions, classes and scripts under the "preload_statistics" index. 
 + 
 +==== Static members and static variables ==== 
 +To avoid misunderstanding, it is clear stated that preloading doesn't change the behavior of static class members and static variables. Their values are not going to relive request boundary.
  
 ==== Preloading Limitation ==== ==== Preloading Limitation ====
-Only top-level classes without unresolved parent, interfcaes, traits and constant values may be preloaded. If a class doesn't satisfy to this condition, it's stored in opcache SHM as a part of corresponding PHP script in the same way as without preloading.+Only classes without unresolved parent, interfaces, traits and constant values may be preloaded.  If a class doesn't satisfy to this condition, it's stored in opcache SHM as a part of corresponding PHP script in the same way as without preloading
 +Also, only top-level entities that are not nested within control structures (e.g. if()...) may be preloaded. 
 + 
 +On Windows, it's also not possible to preload classes inherited from internal ones. Windows ASLR and absence of fork() don't allow to guarantee the same addresses of internal classes in different processes.
  
 ==== Implementation Details ==== ==== Implementation Details ====
-Preloading is implemented as a part of opcache on top of another (already committed) patch that introduces "immutable" classes and functions. They assume that immutable part is stored in shared memory once (for all processes) and never copied to process memory, but variable part is specific for each process. The patch introduced MAP_PTR pointer data structure, that allows pointers from SHM to process.+Preloading is implemented as a part of the opcache on top of another (already committed) patch that introduces "immutable" classes and functions. They assume that the immutable part is stored in shared memory once (for all processes) and never copied to process memory, but the variable part is specific for each process. The patch introduced the MAP_PTR pointer data structure, that allows pointers from SHM to process memory.
  
 ===== Backward Incompatible Changes ===== ===== Backward Incompatible Changes =====
-Preloading doesn'affect any functionality, if not used. However, if used, it may break some application behavior, because preloaded classes and functions are always available, and function_exists() or class_exists() checks would return TRUE, preventing execution of expected code paths.+Preloading does not affect any functionality unless it is explicitly used. However, if used, it may break some application behavior, because preloaded classes and functions are always available, and function_exists() or class_exists() checks would return TRUE, preventing execution of expected code paths.  As mentioned above, incorrect usage on a server with more than one app could also result in failures.  As different apps (or different versions of the same app) may have the same class/function names in different files, if one version of the class is preloaded - it will prevent loading of any other version of that class defined in a different file.
  
 ===== Proposed PHP Version(s) ===== ===== Proposed PHP Version(s) =====
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 ==== php.ini Defaults ==== ==== php.ini Defaults ====
   * opcache.preload - specifies a PHP script that is going to be compiled and executed at server start-up.   * opcache.preload - specifies a PHP script that is going to be compiled and executed at server start-up.
- 
-===== Open Issues ===== 
-  * preloading in ZTS build is not supported yet 
  
 ===== Performance ===== ===== Performance =====
 Using preloading without any code modification I got ~30% speed-up on ZF1_HelloWorld (3620 req/sec vs 2650 req/sec) and ~50% on ZF2Test (1300 req/sec vs 670 req/sec) reference applications. Using preloading without any code modification I got ~30% speed-up on ZF1_HelloWorld (3620 req/sec vs 2650 req/sec) and ~50% on ZF2Test (1300 req/sec vs 670 req/sec) reference applications.
-However, I expect lower impact on heavy real-life apps.+However, real world gains will depend on the ratio between the bootstrap overhead of the code and the runtime of the code, and will likely be lower.  This will likely provide the most noticeable gains with requests with short very runtimes, such as microservices.
  
 ===== Future Scope ===== ===== Future Scope =====
-  * preloading may be used as systemlib in HHVM to define "standard" functions/classes in PHP +  * Preloading may be used as systemlib in HHVM to define "standard" functions/classes in PHP 
-  * it might be possible to pre-compile the preload script and use a binary-form (may be even native .so or .dll) to speed-up server start-up. +  * It might be possible to pre-compile the preload script and use a binary-form (may be even native .so or .dll) to speed-up server start-up. 
-  * in conjunction with ext/FFI (dangerous extension), we may allow FFI functionality only in preloaded PHP files, but not in regular ones +  * In conjunction with ext/FFI (dangerous extension), we may allow FFI functionality only in preloaded PHP files, but not in regular ones 
-  * it's possible to perform more aggressive optimizations and generate better JIT code for preloaded function and classes (similar to HHVM Repo Authoritative mode in HHVM)+  * It's possible to perform more aggressive optimizations and generate better JIT code for preloaded functions and classes (similar to HHVM Repo Authoritative mode in HHVM) 
 +  * It would be great, to extend preloading with some kind of deployment mechanism, to update preloaded bundle(s) without server restart. 
  
 ===== Proposed Voting Choices ===== ===== Proposed Voting Choices =====
-The RFC requires 50%+1 majority+The RFC requires 50%+1 majority. The voting started **2018-11-06** and will close on **2018-11-14** 
 + 
 +<doodle title="Include preloading ability into PHP-7.4" auth="dmitry" voteType="single" closed="true"> 
 +   * Yes 
 +   * No 
 +</doodle>
  
 ===== Patches and Tests ===== ===== Patches and Tests =====
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 ===== Implementation ===== ===== Implementation =====
 After the project is implemented, this section should contain  After the project is implemented, this section should contain 
-  - the version(s) it was merged into +  - merged into 7.4 
-  - a link to the git commit(s) +  - git commit [[https://github.com/php/php-src/commit/f6d227ed4f5d4c0276eb720806e808baceb37f10|f6d227ed4f5d4c0276eb720806e808baceb37f10]] 
-  - a link to the PHP manual entry for the feature +  - a [[http://php.net/manual/en/opcache.configuration.php#ini.opcache.preload|link]] to the PHP manual entry for the feature
-  - a link to the language specification section (if any)+
  
 ===== References ===== ===== References =====
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   * [[https://docs.hhvm.com/hhvm/advanced-usage/repo-authoritative|Repo Authoritative mode in HHVM]]   * [[https://docs.hhvm.com/hhvm/advanced-usage/repo-authoritative|Repo Authoritative mode in HHVM]]
   * [[https://github.com/php/php-src/commit/d57cd36e47b627dee5b825760163f8e62e23ab28|Immutable Classes implementation in PHP]]   * [[https://github.com/php/php-src/commit/d57cd36e47b627dee5b825760163f8e62e23ab28|Immutable Classes implementation in PHP]]
- 
-===== Rejected Features ===== 
-Keep this updated with features that were discussed on the mail lists. 
rfc/preload.txt · Last modified: 2019/01/21 18:20 by cmb