The PHP Manual is written in DocBook and built by PhD, and these builds are rsynced to the mirrors for users to use.
The rsync box builds the manuals each week, at 10:46 UTC on Fridays. The mirrors then pickup these builds when they sync, which usually happens every hour. When mirrors sync depends on how their cron is setup.
The documentation server builds and displays the manual four times daily (0:15 6:15 12:15 and 18:15 UTC). This takes place on the euk2 server. The simplest way to see when each translation last built, see the doc downloads page with dates. Also note that several old translations reside on this server, as it attempts to build every translation (both active and inactive).
The CHM version of the manual is built on a Windows machine and are pulled weekly on Fridays. Richard maintains these builds. Due to the security profile on the Windows machine, rsync is not used. Instead, a normal HTTP request is used.
Aside from running 'php configure.php –with-lang=foo' for a language, another way to check if manuals validated is by looking at build dates on the doc server. See this list of downloadable docs for more information. These include the dates that the manual for each language successfully built.
If there is a problem with the synced builds, it's wise to contact Derick or Hannes. If a problem exists on the developmental server (docs.php.net), then contact the documentation team.