internals:engine

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internals:engine [2010/04/20 10:38]
derick created
internals:engine [2017/09/22 13:28] (current)
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   * each op_array has an array of literals (constant values)   * each op_array has an array of literals (constant values)
   * opocde operands don't contain zval directly any more but points to thistable instead   * opocde operands don't contain zval directly any more but points to thistable instead
-  * during compilation they are accessible by index e.gop_array->​literals[opline->​op1.constant].constant +  * during compilation they are accessible by index e.g: <​code>​op_array->​literals[opline->​op1.constant].constant</​code>​ 
-  * the pass_two() changes indexes into pointers so during execution they are accessible by opline->​op1.zv+  * the pass_two() changes indexes into pointers so during execution they are accessible by: <​code>​opline->​op1.zv</​code>​
  
 +===== Objects =====
 +See [[internals:​engine:​objects|here]].
 +
 +===== FAQ =====
 +These are questions, often times with answers, for the PHP Internals. This document is temporary until it's polished and finds a home within the PHP Manual sources. Feel free to add questions with or without answers.
 +
 +Note: This is rough, feel free to clean it up.
 +
 +==== C++ ====
 +Extensions can be written in C++, you have to add PHP_REQUIRE_CXX to the config.m4 file to make the build system C++-aware though.
 +
 +To allow static builds of the extension one has to mind this:
 +
 +  09:20:43 <​johannes_>​ and ext/​extname/​php_extname.h has to be a valid C header, not C++, as it's included in internal_functions.c ...
 +  09:22:06 <​dsp_>​ hmm, that's the point..
 +  09:23:01 <​johannes_>​ you can have your own additional header for C++ suff, but that one has to be C compatible
 +
 +
 +==== Memory Management ====
 +
 +  [12:00pm] scoates: ok.. last question for now, I think: should I explicitly destroy on RSHUTDOWN, or let the non-persistent flag take care of that?
 +  [12:00pm] johannes_: always cleanup yourself
 +
 +Note here: while MM shutdown will take care of all allocated memory, it won't run any dtors etc., that's why it is important to clean up the resources properly - otherwise external dependencies can be messed up. And of course you'd get leaks reported in the debug mode. 
 +
 +==== Causes for crashes ====
 +
 +=== Throwing Exceptions ===
 +
 +If throwing exceptions results in a segmentation fault on 64bit systems only, then be sure that you have:
 +  #include "​zend_exceptions.h" ​
 +
 +(Remark: This header is always needed. The segfault might be caused by the fact, that C defaults the return value and parameters of undefined parameters to int. In cases where pointers and/or long data types are needed this might be wrong so a wrong function call is being made. A good compiler should give a warning. --johannes)
 +
 +==== Hashes ====
 +  [11:58am] scoates: what's the difference between zend_hash_[add] and zend_hash_quick_[add] ?
 +  [11:58am] scoates: removal of gofaster loops? (-:
 +  [11:58am] Derick: with the 2nd one you can provide an already calculated hash-list index
 +
 +  [11:59am] scoates: and the hashtable will automatically grow on _add, right? the length passed to init is just a hint?
 +  [11:59am] johannes_: right
 +===== Unsorted =====
 +
 +Add your random stuff here. I'll move it/update it/fix it (Derick)
 +
 +How to get %%__LINE__ and __FILE__%%?
 +  * zend_get_executed_filename() and zend_get_executed_lineno()
 +
 +How do I detect the SAPI?
 +  * The fastest way [to detect CLI] would be: if (sapi_module.phpinfo_as_text) { ... }
 +  * sapi_module is a true global, not a TSRM protected one
 +  * sapi_module.name and sapi_module.pretty_name contain the name as char*
 +  * sapi_module.phpinfo_as_text is a flag which can be set by different SAPIs to request text only phpinfo() output, currently only CLI and embed do that afaik, CGI does not.
 +
 +
 +==== Extension Globals =====
 +
 +To use extension globals (which are either true globals or thread local globals, depending on whether ZTS is enabled), follow these steps:
 +
 +- In php_extname.h,​ declare which global variables you need with:
 +
 +<​code>​
 +ZEND_BEGIN_MODULE_GLOBALS(extname)
 + int var1;
 + char *var2;​
 + ....
 +ZEND_END_MODULE_GLOBALS(extname)
 +</​code> ​
 +
 +This will declare a structure (typedef'​d to zend_extname_globals) that will hold all your globals.
 +
 +- In php_extname.h,​ add <​code>​ZEND_EXTERN_MODULE_GLOBALS(extname);</​code>​. This will produce an allusion that will allow you to access the globals from every compile unit that includes php_extname.h In particular, this produces an allusion to an integer named extname_globals_id in ZTS builds or directly to a zend_extname_globals named extname_globals in non-ZTS builds.
 +
 +- In php_extname.h,​ define a macro named EXTNAME_G, like this:
 +<​code>​
 +#ifdef ZTS
 +# define EXTNAME_G(v) TSRMG(extname_globals_id,​ zend_extname_globals *, v)
 +#else
 +# define EXTNAME_G(v) (extname_globals.v)
 +#endif
 +</​code>​
 +
 +This will allow you to access the globals in a consistent manner in both ZTS and non-ZTS builds, like this:
 +
 +<​code>​EXTNAME_G(var1)</​code>​
 +
 +- Now that you have declared the type that aggregates the globals and the variable that holds the globals, you must define the globals. In extname.c, add
 +
 +<​code>​ZEND_DECLARE_MODULE_GLOBALS(extname);</​code>​
 +
 +This produces a tentative definition of extname_globals_id or extname_globals (depending on whether it's a ZTS or non-ZTS build).
 +
 +- If you needn'​t do any startup operations on your variables, you would already have function extension globals in non-ZTS builds. Tipically, you will also want to initialize some extension globals (for instance, to allocate some memory for the var2 extension global above) -- this is done with globals constructors and destructors. To make it work in ZTS builds and allow such operations, add the following to your zend_module_entry:​
 +
 +<​code>​
 +zend_module_entry extname_module_entry = {
 + ...
 + ZEND_MODULE_INFO_N(extname),​
 + PHP_EXTNAME_VERSION,​
 + ZEND_MODULE_GLOBALS(extname),​
 + ZEND_MODULE_GLOBALS_CTOR_N(extname),​ //may be NULL
 + ZEND_MODULE_GLOBALS_DTOR_N(extname),​ //may be NULL
 + ...
 +}
 +</​code>​
 +
 +Note: do not use ZEND_INIT_MODULE_GLOBALS/​ts_allocate_id. If used a shared extension, they will provoke an attempt to call the destructor after the module has been unloaded! Also, for all that is holy, do NOT initialize globals on MINIT (EXTNAME_G(var_ptr) = NULL), that won't work correctly in ZTS as it won't initialize the value in all threads.
 +
 +- Now define the constructor and destructor functions:
 +
 +<​code>​
 +ZEND_MODULE_GLOBALS_CTOR_D(extname)
 +{
 + extname_globals->​arg2 = pemalloc(1024,​ 1);
 +}
 +
 +ZEND_MODULE_GLOBALS_DTOR_D(extname)
 +{
 + pefree(extname_globals->​arg2,​ 1);
 +}
 +</​code>​
 +
 +The globals constructor and destructor are NOT execute per-request,​ they are part of the module startup/​shutdown. The globals can store data across requests. If you need to do per-request operations to the globals, use module-activate and module-deactivate callbacks.
 +
 +Note: ZEND_MODULE_GLOBALS_CTOR_D will declare a function as receiving a zend_extname_globals*,​ not void* and zend_module_entry is supposed to contain a function pointer type that receives void*. I think this violates the C standard (the declarations are incompatible),​ but should however by safe since the arguments have the same size.
internals/engine.1271759926.txt.gz · Last modified: 2017/09/22 13:28 (external edit)